Loch Ness Monster

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Loch Ness Monster

Post  Admin on 10/27/2008, 1:23 am

Loch Ness Monster


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.




For the cryptography research project, see NESSIE.
For other uses, see Loch Ness Monster (disambiguation). The famous "Surgeon's photo"



The Loch Ness Monster, sometimes called "Nessie" or "Ness" (Scottish Gaelic: Niseag) is a creature or group of creatures said to live in Loch Ness, a deep freshwater loch (lake) near the city of Inverness in northern Scotland. Nessie is generally categorized as a lake monster.
Along with Bigfoot and Yeti (the "Abominable Snowman"), Nessie is one of the best-known mysteries in cryptozoology though most mainstream scientists and other experts find current evidence supporting Nessie unpersuasive and regard such reports as hoaxes or misidentification of mundane creatures.


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History



Ancient


Rumours of a monster or animal living in the loch have circulated for several centuries, though some have questioned the accuracy and reliability of such tales. The earliest known reference is from the Life of St. Columba by Adamnan. It describes how in 565 Columba saved the life of a Pict, who was being attacked by the monster in the River Ness. Adamnan describes the event as follows:

"...(He) raised his holy hand, while all the rest, brethren as well as strangers, were stupefied with terror, and, invoking the name of God, formed the saving sign of the cross in the air, and commanded the ferocious monster, saying, "Thou shalt go no further, nor touch the man; go back with all speed." Then at the voice of the saint, the monster was terrified, and fled more quickly than if it had been pulled back with ropes, though it had just got so near to Lugne, as he swam, that there was not more than the length of a spear-staff between the man and the beast. Then the brethren seeing that the monster had gone back, and that their comrade Lugne returned to them in the boat safe and sound, were struck with admiration, and gave glory to God in the blessed man. And even the barbarous heathens, who were present, were forced by the greatness of this miracle, which they themselves had seen, to magnify the God of the Christians" [1].
Some critics have questioned the reliability of the Life, noting a different story in which Columba slays a wild boar by the power of his voice alone 1.[edit]


Recent past


The first modern sighting occurred on May 2, 1933. The newspaper Inverness Courier carried a story of Mr. and Mrs. John Mackay, who reportedly saw "an enormous animal rolling and plunging on the surface." The report of the "monster" (a title chosen by the editor of the Courier) became a media sensation with London papers sending reporters to Scotland and a circus, even offering a reward of £20,000 for capture of the monster.
Later that year, A.H. Palmer, who allegedly witnessed Nessie on August 11, 1933, at 7 a.m., described the creature as having its head, which they saw from the front, set low in the water. Its mouth, which had a width of between twelve and eighteen inches (30-45 cm), was opening and closing; its maximum mouth aperture was estimated to be about six inches (15 cm).[edit]


Modern


The modern preoccupation with the Loch Ness Monster was aroused by a photograph allegedly taken by surgeon R.K. Wilson on April 19, 1934, which seemed to show a large creature with a long neck gliding through the water. Decades later, on March 12, 1994, Marmaduke Wetherell claimed to have faked the photo after being hired by the Daily Mail to track down Nessie (the photo had by that time been printed worldwide as "absolute evidence"). Wetherell also stated that Wilson did not take the photo, and his name was only used to give added credibility to the photo.
Regardless of whether anything is actually in the loch, the Loch Ness Monster has some significance for the local economy. Dozens of hotels, boating tour operators, and merchants of stuffed animals and related trinkets owe part of their livelihood to this monster, although people visit the loch for many reasons other than to see the monster. Hence, the legend is likely to endure for quite some time.[edit]


Theories


Most accounts of Nessie's appearance, including historical ones, indicate a creature resembling the long-extinct plesiosaur. Actual fossil evidence for this Mesozoic creature shows it to have been physically large, with a long neck and tiny head, with flippers for propulsion. The alleged connection of this creature with the Loch Ness monster has made it a popular topic in the field of cryptozoology. However, most scientists suggest the idea that the Loch Ness Monster is a remnant of the Mesozoic era is highly unlikely; there would need to be a breeding colony of such creatures for there to have been any long-term survival, and coupled with the fact that plesiosaurs needed to surface to breathe, this would result in far more frequent sightings than have actually been reported. Many biologists also argue Loch Ness is not large or productive enough to support even a small family of these creatures. Moreover, the loch was created as the result of geologically recent glaciation and was frozen solid during recent ice-ages.
Other sightings, however, do not fit the plesiosaur description or even a water-bound creature: In April 1923, Alfred Cruickshank claimed to have seen a creature 3 m to 3.5 m long, with an arched back and four elephant-like feet cross the road before him as he was driving. Other sightings report creatures more similar to camels or horses.[2]
Theories as to the exact nature of the Loch Ness Monster sightings are varied: pareidolia or misidentification of seals, fish, logs, mirages, seiches, and light distortion, crossing of boat wakes, or unusual wave patterns.
Very large sturgeon have been found in inland streams close to Loch Ness, and due to sturgeons' size and unusual appearance, one could easily be mistaken for a monster by someone not familiar with it. A recent theory postulates that the "monster" is actually nothing more than bubbling and disruptions in the water caused by minor volcanic activity at the bottom of the loch. This latter argument is supported to a minor degree by a correlation between tectonic motion and reported sightings.[edit]

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Re: Loch Ness Monster

Post  Admin on 10/27/2008, 1:23 am

Evidence

[edit]


Evidence for


The rhomboid fin photograph



Some have argued a history of "monster" sightings in the loch is circumstantial evidence supporting the creature's existence. Note that these notions have been challenged.
In the early 1970s, a group led by American patent lawyer Robert Rines obtained some underwater photographs. One was a vague image, perhaps of a rhomboid flipper (others have argued the object could be air bubbles or a fish fin). On the basis of this photograph, Sir Peter Scott, one of Britain's best-known naturalists, announced in 1975 that the scientific name of the monster would henceforth be Nessiteras rhombopteryx1 (Greek for "The Ness monster with diamond-shaped fin). This would enable Nessie to be added to a British register of officially protected wildlife (but compare [3]). It has been noted by London newspapers that Nessiteras rhombopteryx is an anagram of "monster hoax by Sir Peter S." Sir Peter replied by saying that the letters can also be rearranged to spell "Yes, both pix are monsters - r."
The underwater photos were obtained by painstakingly scouring the loch's depths with radar, over the course of days, for unusual underwater activity. An underwater camera with an affixed, high-powered light (necessary for penetrating Loch Ness' famed murk) was then deployed to record images from below the surface. Several of the resulting photographs, despite their obviously murky quality, indeed seem to show (with only a very slight stretch of the imagination) an animal quite resembling a plesiosaur in various positions and lightings. A few close-ups of what is alleged to be the creature's diamond-shaped fin were also taken, in different positions, indicating movement.

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Re: Loch Ness Monster

Post  Admin on 10/27/2008, 1:24 am

Evidence against


Perhaps typical of the many unsatisfactory "facts" about Nessie is the alleged sighting of October 1871. In this incident, "D. Mackenzie" supposedly described seeing something that moved slowly before moving off at a faster speed. People who saw "the monster" were said to describe it as having a hump (sometimes more than one) that looked like an upturned boat. However, although this story has been repeated in several places [4][5][6][7], no original 1871 source has been cited, casting doubt on the report.
The famed "Surgeon's Photo" (pictured top) was confirmed a hoax, based on the deathbed confessions of Chris Spurling, son-in-law of Marmaduke Wetherell. Spurling claimed the photo, which inspired much popular interest in the monster, was actually a staged photograph of clay attached to a toy submarine. Wetherell, a big game hunter, had been tricked into searching for an imaginary monster around the loch based on evidence which turned out to be the result of children's prank. He was publicly ridiculed in the Daily Mail, the journal which employed him. To get revenge, Marmaduke Wetherell set this hoax up, with the help of Chris Spurling (his son-in-law as mentioned), who was a specialist in sculpture, Ian Marmaduke (his son), who bought the material for the fake Nessie, and Maurice Chambers (an insurance agent), who was to call and ask Robert Wilson (a surgeon) to show the pictures. Well before Spurling's claims, however, others had argued the photo was that of an otter or a diving bird. Note that there are in fact two "Surgeon's Photos," which depict slightly different poses, leading some to argue the photos are evidence against a hoax. Also interesting to point out is that the surgeon who was credited for taking the photo never claimed he hadn't taken it either......
In July 2003, the BBC reported an extensive investigation of Loch Ness by a BBC team, using 600 separate sonar beams, found no trace of any "sea monster" in the loch. The BBC team concluded that Nessie does not exist [8].[edit]


The Loch Ness Monster and popular culture


The Loch Ness Monster is well known throughout the United Kingdom and the United States.[edit]


Literature


Peter Maddocks created a cartoon series called Family Ness where two children, Angus and Elsbeth McToot, befriend the Ness clan.
A Saint story titled "The Convenient Monster" written by Leslie Charteris featured the Loch Ness Monster. The story appeared in the 1962 collection Trust the Saint and was included in The Fantastic Saint (1982). The story was also made into an episode that first aired November 4, 1966, in the fifth season of the BBC television series starring Roger Moore as the Saint.
In the comic Sherman's Lagoon the Loch Ness Monster comes to the lagoon occasionally, usually to play golf. This depiction of the monster is as a plesiosaur wearing a Tam o'shanter.
In the book Fantastic Beasts and Where To Find Them, written by JK Rowling for Comic Relief about creatures from her fictional Harry Potter universe, it is suggested that the Loch Ness Monster is the world's largest kelpie, a shape changing water creature. It takes the form of a sea serpent most of the time, but takes the form of an otter when Muggles are looking for it.[edit]


Movies and television


In the 1970 film The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes an explanation for a similar Loch dwelling monster is revealed as one clue of the story's mystery.
In the 1975 Doctor Who serial Terror of the Zygons, the Loch Ness Monster is revealed to be an alien cyborg controlled by the extraterrestrial race known as the Zygons and is used in a bid for world conquest. When that scheme is foiled by the Doctor and its masters killed, the creature returns to its watery home. In the 1985 story "Timelash", the Loch Ness monster was revealed to be Borad, a tyrant whose DNA got mixed with a dinosaur type monster.
The television series The Simpsons included an episode (#224, 'Monty Can't Buy Me Love') on the Loch Ness Monster. Mr. Burns takes Homer, Groundskeeper Willie, and Professor Frink to Scotland to capture the creature. After failing to find the monster by manually searching the loch, Burns orders the loch drained. Sure enough, they find the monster and bring it back to Springfield. After a disastrous unveiling reminiscent of Kong's rampage in King Kong, Burns gives Nessie a job at a casino.
In the 1992 animated movie Freddie as FRO7 Nessie befriends an enchanted frog prince called Frederick who uses powers of telekenesis to free her tail trapped under a fallen boulder. She later helps him defeat an enemy invasion of Britain.
In John Landis' film Amazon Women on the Moon it was revealed that the Loch Ness Monster was actually none other than Jack the Ripper himself.
The television series Scooby Doo inspired a movie Scooby Doo and the Loch Ness Monster. The gang went to Scotland to solve the mystery of the Loch Ness Monster. It turned out that the monster was just a machine, though the existence of an actual one is hinted at in the ending.
Of course, the Goodies also went to Scotland and captured the Loch Ness Monster. "A bid to trap the Loch Ness Monster to pacify a suicidal zoo keeper sees the Goodies travel to Scotland, where they have a close brush with the deadly Bagpipes spider among other trials." SEASON 2 1971-72 "LOCH NESS MONSTER"
Dojo the dragon from Xiaolin Showdown is related to Nessie, and hid the Shen-Gon-Wu called the Tangled Web Comb in the loch during one of his visits.
The cult-favourite film Napoleon Dynamite features a current events presentation given by Napoleon in which he tells the story of "Japanese scientists placing explosive detonators at the bottom of Lake Loch Ness to blow Nessie out of the water."
In an episode of South Park, Chef's parents tell the boys about all the times the Loch Ness monster has, in disguise, asked them for "about tree fiddy" ($3.50).
Ted Danson starred in the 1996 film Loch Ness in which he plays an American scientist trying to prove the existence of the Loch Ness monster.
An episode in the second series of the classic Japanese anime Lupin III titled "I Can Hear Nessie's Song" features the Loch Ness Monster, who comes out of the water when Fujiko sings. An evil doctor tries to use her singing to his advantage so he can capture the monster.[edit]

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Re: Loch Ness Monster

Post  Admin on 10/27/2008, 1:24 am

Media


A Weekly World News image purporting to show a scuba diver with the Loch Ness Monster



The tabloid Weekly World News often reports on the creature, claiming that it's been captured, sold, and even dead.[edit]


Games


In the SNES game Earthbound a long-necked, purple Loch Ness inspired character named "Tessie" is used to cross a lake ("Lake Tess") by one of the main characters. There is also a group of local people who have dedicated their lives to studying Tessie.
In the first Pokémon series of games on Gameboy, Lapras itself is inspired by Loch Ness.


See also



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